Fulham Palace was originally built in the eleventh century, as an official residence for the Bishop of London. The oldest part of the present palace, surrounding the Fitzjames Quadrangle, was built by Bishop Kemp in the late fifteenth century (circa 1495) and Bishop Fitzjames in the early sixteenth (1506-22). The rest of the palace is eighteenth to nineteenth century. The palace is currently in the care of Hammersmith and Fulham Council, and parts of it are open to the public, as also are the extensive grounds, with their notable botanical collections.
Between 1466-75, the wealthy grocer John Crosby built Crosby Hall, described by John Stow, in his “Survay of London” of 1598, as “very large and beautiful”, on Bishopsgate in the City of London. The Hall survived the Great Fire of 1666. Bizarrely, in 1909, it was relocated to Cheyne Walk in Chelsea, where it can still be seen to this day (photos below).
There are some wonderfully evocative old black-and-white photographs of the Hall in its original location on Bishopsgate in 1907 in Philip Davies’ “haunting and heartbreaking” book “Lost London” (English Heritage, 2009). There are also some sumptuous recent colour photographs of the interior of the Hall in its new location in Chelsea in Davies’s “London – Hidden Interiors” (English Heritage, 2012).
Today I received the advance copies of my latest book, published by Cambridge University Press, and entitled “Foraminifera and their Applications”. (When not treading the streets of London earlier this year, I was busily scribbling away with my other academic and scientific hat on). Although seemingly a completely different field of study, Foraminifera have helped to reveal aspects of London’s past.
What are Foraminifera?
This is a question I am often asked. I tend to try to keep my answer simple, so as to be as comprehensible as possible to the layman. I say that they are microscopic single-celled organisms similar to Amoebae, but differing in possessing shells.
Why should I care?
This is another question I am often asked in one form or another (such as “So what?”), usually immediately after I have given my answer to the previous one. I say: on account of the numerical importance of living ones in modern aquatic environments and of fossil ones in the ancient rock record; and of their practical importance to Science and to Humankind, in developing an understanding of modern environments and the ancient rock record.
Applications of Foraminifera
Foraminifera have wide ranges of academic and economic applications, for example in environmental science and archaeology, and in petroleum, mining and engineering geology. In environmental science and archaeology, their principal application is in the interpretation of environmental conditions, including salinity (e.g., fresh-water, brackish or marine), hydrography (e.g., supra-tidal, inter-tidal or sub-tidal), sedimentology (e.g., estuarine, deltaic or reefal), and depth (e.g., marginal, shallow or deep marine).
The Environmental Archaeology of the Medieval Deposits of the River Fleet in the City of London
The Medieval deposits of the River Fleet in the City of London were subject to an environmental archaeological study in the 1970s. Over 140 species of aquatic organisms were found to be present in the deposits, including Foraminifera such as Nonion germanicus (pictured above, on the front cover of my book). Most proved to be fresh-water to slightly brackish. Associated rare, non-aquatic parasitic nematodes were interpreted as having been introduced into the deposits in dung dumped into the river by humans, alongside food waste and what might be thought of as industrial waste, including hide (waste from butchery or tannery) and horn cores (waste from glass manufacture). The dumping of organic pollutants into the river evidently resulted initially in fertilisation, and in the proliferation of some opportunistic species such as Horned and Opposite-Leaved Pondweed. However, it also resulted subsequently in poisoning and in the effective elimination of all species, as also indicated in the archive records for 1343. In consequence, it was ordered in 1357 that “no man shall take … any manner of rubbish … or dung … to throw … into the rivers of the Thames and Fleet … . And if any one should be found doing the contrary thereof, let him have the prison for his body, and other heavy punishment as well, at the discretion of the Mayor and the Aldermen”.
Bromley was first recorded as Braembelege in around 1000, taking it’s name from the Old English for a woodland clearing or “leah” where brambles grew.
It is the home of Bromley Hall, originally built around 1500, and still standing, on what is now part of the Blackwall Tunnel Approach Road.
To tie in – loosely – with the beginning of Advent, here are images of some of the Random Camels of Old London Town …
Clockwise from top left: Camel Corps memorial, Victoria Embankment Gardens; Camel public house, Sugar Loaf Walk, Globe Town; ‘Camel and Artichoke’ – whaaat? – public house, Lower Marsh, Waterloo; seat with camel motif, Embankment (near Cleopatra’s Needle); “amusing relief of camels and a driver” (Pevsner), Peek House, Eastcheap (once a tea and coffee warehouse, hence the “singular Graeco-Egyptian details”).
Recently quite a few of my walkers have asked me about the deviating alignments of the plans of new and “old” St Paul’s, as depicted in the Churchyard.
The alignment of the modern cathedral (built by Christopher Wren between 1675-1710 after the Medieval one was burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666), picked out in grey Purbeck Marble, is toward the direction of the sunrise on the Easter Sunday of the year in which the foundations were laid, April 14th, 1675, at approximately 75deg, a full 15deg north of true geographic east.
In contrast, the alignment of the ancient, Medieval cathedral (itself far from the first, and indeed actually the fourth, on the site), picked out in black and white, is 10deg closer to true geographic east, at approximately 85deg, and may have been toward Medieval magnetic east, which may in turn have just happened to more or less coincide with modern magnetic east.
Note in this context that because of variations in the earth’s magnetic field, the locations of magnetic north, south, east and west with respect to true geographic north, south, east and west have actually varied considerably through time! Measurements acquired in London indicate that the angle between magnetic and true north, or “magnetic declination”, here was +10deg (i.e., magnetic north was 10deg east of true north) in the mid-sixteenth century; then fell to -25deg (i.e., magnetic north was 25deg west of true north) at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth; and has since risen again to <-5deg, which is the present value. There are no measurements from before the post-Medieval period.
To see a graph showing the variation over time of magnetic north in London, on a different website, click here