Tag Archives: Inns of Chancery

The Medieval Inns of Court and Chancery (John Fortescue, 1470)

Another in the occasional series on contemporary accounts and descriptions of the historic City of London,  this one on the Medieval Inns of Court and Chancery, written by John Fortescue in 1470 …

“In England, laws are learned in three languages, namely English, French and Latin [and] not in universities, but in a certain public academy situated near the King’s courts [in Westminster].  That academy is not situated in the city, where the tumult could disturb the student’s quiet, but in a suburb.  There are in this academy ten lesser Inns of Chancery to each of [which] at least a hundred belong.  These students are for the most part young men learning the elements of the law, who, becoming proficient as they mature, are absorbed into the greater Inns of Court, of which there are four in number, and to the least of which belong 200 students or more.

[I]n these greater inns there can no student be maintained for less expenses by the year than 20 marks.  And if he have a servant to wait upon him, as most of them have, then so much the greater will his charges be.  Now by reason of these charges the children only of noble men do study the laws … .  For the poor and common sort of the people are not able to bear so great charges … and merchant men can seldom find in their hearts to hinder their merchandise with so great yearly expenses.  And thus it falleth out that there is scant any man found within the … laws, except he be a gentleman born … .

Wherefore they more than any other kind of men have a special regard to their nobility and to the preservation of their honour and fame.  And to speak uprightly there is in these greater  inns, yea and in the lesser too, beside the study of the laws, as it were an university or school of all commendable qualities requisite for noble men.  There they learn to sing, and to exercise themselves in all kinds of harmony.  There also they practise dancing, and other noble men’s pastimes, as they do which are brought up in the king’s house”.

An individual’s right to trial by jury was enshrined  in the Magna Carta in the reign of King John in the early thirteenth century, and that to legal counsel and representation in the form of an “attorney” (solicitor) and a “pleader” before court (barrister) in the reign of Edward I in the late thirteenth; and the Inns of Court were established in the fourteenth and fifteenth (Temple in the early fourteenth, Gray’s Inn in the late fourteenth, and Lincoln’s Inn, in its present location, in the fifteenth).

Only post-Medieval and later buildings survive in the modern Inns of Court.

Middle Temple Hall exterior.JPGMiddle Temple Hall interior.jpg

These include the Elizabethan Middle Temple Hall, where plays were and are performed for the entertainment of the Templars (Shakespeare’s “Twelfth Night” premiered here in 1602).

Lincoln's Inn Old Hall.JPGMedieval arch (from Bishop of Chichester's House), Lincoln's Inn Old Hall.jpg

Note, though, that  Lincoln’s Inn Old Hall, which dates to the reign of the first Tudor King, Henry VII, incorporates into its construction a Gothic arch from an older, Medieval, building, very possibly  the thirteenth-century Bishop of Chichester’s House.

 

Open House London 2014 (Barnard’s Inn; Christ Church, Spitalfields; and St Pancras Old Church)

Porch

St Pancras Old Church

20th September 2014 – Open House London

(photos below all taken today by Bob Jones)

Barnard’s Inn

Barnard’s Inn, which  dates to the late fourteenth- or early fifteenth- century, is one of the Inns of Chancery, thought to have originated in the Medieval period as a place where chancery clerks were trained  – in the preparation of writs –  and also where they were housed.  By the middle of the fifteenth century,   it had become a place where students of the law could train as solicitors (lawyers who counsel their clients in chambers); and by 1530, it had become affiliated to Gray’s Inn, one of the Inns of Court, to which they might be “called to the bar” to train as barristers (lawyers who represent their clients in court).  By the eighteenth century, it had ceased to have much of a legal educational function, as by then students could enrol directly in an Inn of Court; and by 1892  it had become so  little used that it was sold to the Mercers Livery Company to house  the relocated Mercers School, which it did until 1959.  Since 1991, it  has housed  the relocated Gresham College.

Barnard's Inn Hall - exterior

Barnard’s Inn Hall – exterior

Barnard's Inn Hall - interior

Barnard’s Inn Hall – interior

Gresham College

Gresham College

Gresham portrait

Gresham portrait

Mercers School sign

Mercers School sign

Christ Church, Spitalfields

Christ Church, Spitalfields was built between 1714-29, as one of a proposed fifty new churches commissioned by an Act of Parliament in 1711 to meet the needs of the expanding population in what were then the extremities of London  (in the event, only twelve were actually built).  The church was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, and is extraordinary both in its  containing form and in its contained space.  As the guide-book has it:

“Neat proportional systems seldom appear in the geometry of solids and voids on which his architecture especially depends”.

Detail of interior

Detail of interior

Exterior

Exterior

Interior

Interior

Interior with memorial to Edward Peck (d. 1736)

Interior with memorial to Edward Peck (d. 1736)

Interior with memorial to Robert Ladbroke (d. 1773)

Interior with memorial to Robert Ladbroke (d. 1773)

Interior with organ

Interior with organ

St Pancras Old Church

St Pancras Old Church may  legitimately lay a claim to being the oldest place of Christian worship in London, although almost all of its ancient  fabric was destroyed during the Victorian rebuilding  of 1847-48 (the church has also been restored, rather more sympathetically, a further four times since then – in 1888-95, in 1925, in 1948, and in 1977-81).

There are pieces of Roman tile incorporated into the surviving Norman north wall of the church, and it is possible, although not proven,  that these were taken from a late Roman, i.e., fourth-century, church that once stood on the site (which was perhaps previously the site of a pagan compitum or shrine, in a typical location for such  on elevated ground adjacent to a water-course). In 1955, the local historian Charles Lee even suggested a date “possibly as early as 313 or 314” (313 was the year of the issuing of the Edict of Milan, which ensured tolerance of Christianity; and 314 was the year of the Christian Council of Arles, known to have been attended by at least one representative from Roman London or Londinium, whose name was Restitutus).  Note also that 304 was the year that the patronal Pancras was martyred on the orders of the Emperor Diocletian.

There is also a Saxon altar-stone of Kentish Rag inlaid into  the Georgian altar-table.  The altar-stone, together with some fine pieces of Elizabethan and Jacobean silver plate, was hidden away during the Civil War and Commonwealth of the mid-seventeenth century, and was only rediscovered during the rebuilding of the  nineteenth.   It depicts one large cross surrounded by  four smaller ones, making a total of five, symbolising  the number of wounds received by Christ on the cross.  The unusual form of the crosses, which have distal nodes, is reminiscent of that on the tomb on a small island in the Firth of Lorne of Columba’s mother Eithne, who died in 597.  It is thus suggestive of a date around  the time of the conversion of the Saxons by St Augustine, also in 597, and the construction of the first incarnation of St Paul’s Cathedral, in 604 (interestingly, the land on which the church stands was granted to  St Paul’s in 604 – by King Ethelbert).  This would make it significantly older than the Saxon arch in the church of All Hallows Barking or All Hallows by the Tower in the City of London, which dates to around 675.

Entrance

Entrance

Exterior

Exterior

Norman wall

Norman wall

Porch

Porch

Post-Medieval gravestone in interior

Post-Medieval gravestone in interior

Post-Medieval memorial in interior

Post-Medieval memorial in interior

Recycled Roman tile in Norman wall

Recycled Roman tile in Norman wall

Saxon altar-stone

Saxon altar-stone

Churchyard

The correspondingly atmospheric seventeenth- to early nineteenth- century churchyard contains a number of notable graves, including that of the philosopher and women’s  rights advocate Mary Wollstonecraft, author of  “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (who died in 1792, ten days after giving birth to her daughter, also Mary, the author of “Frankenstein”), which was relocated from its original position during the construction of the nearby railway, at which time the body was disinterred, and reinterred in a family plot in Bournemouth; and that of the architect Sir John Soane (d. 1837).  It also contains an ornate  memorial to Baroness Burdett Coutts, who is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Burdett-Coutts memorial

Burdett-Coutts memorial

Wollstonecraft memorial

Wollstonecraft memorial