Tag Archives: Leprosy

Ilford

Ilford Alms-houses (4)Another in the occasional series on “Far-Flung Lost London” …

Ilford was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ilefort, meaning ford over the River Hyle (an early name for the Roding).  At that time, it  was  a small village occupying both banks of the river, and indeed it was not until the nineteenth century that it finally became suburbanised.  Little Ilford, on the west bank, is part of Manor Park; Great Ilford, on the east bank, part of Barking.

Hospital Chapel

The then Abbess of Barking, Adelicia or Adeliza, founded a hospital for thirteen elderly and infirm men here in the twelfth century, around 1145, and  dedicated it to St  Mary the Virgin.  A later Abbess, Mary, extended the hospital in around 1180, and re-dedicated it to St Mary and St Thomas in memory of her brother, Thomas Becket, the murdered Archbishop of Canterbury.  The hospital began to admit lepers in the thirteenth century, around 1219, by which time leprosy had become widespread in Europe (following its introduction from Asia at the time of the Crusades), and was further extended in the fourteenth.     It remained in use essentially as a leper hospital until the sixteenth century, when it was seized by the Crown, thereafter  becoming alms-houses.  It has been still further extended, and  large parts of it have been rebuilt, since.  The buildings are currently  owned and administered by the Abbess Adelicia Charity.

Some surviving parts of the chapel  date to the twelfth to centuries, and some memorials to the fifteenth.    Recent archaeological excavations undertaken on the site unearthed some 22-25  skeletons of pre-fourteenth century date, several  of them showing signs of leprosy.

 

Expulsion of a leper (City of London letter-book, 1372)

Another in the occasional series on contemporary accounts of events in the history of London, this one from the City of London letter-book of 1372 …

Leper and physician

Leper and physician

“ … John Mayn, …  who had oftentimes … been commanded … to depart from the City, and provide for himself some dwelling outside it, and avoid the common conversation of mankind – seeing that he, John, was smitten with the blemish of leprosy – … by reason of the infection of that disease … was [ordered] before the mayor and aldermen at the Husting … [to] depart forthwith from the City, and … not return thereto, on pain of undergoing the punishment of the pillory, if he should contravene the same”.

Mayn was one of countless lepers expelled from the City after their presence there was banned under a Royal Edict issued by Edward III in 1346, which read, in part:

“all leprose persons inhabiting … should auoid within fifteen dayes …, and … no man suffer any such leprose person to abide within his house, vpon paine to forfeite his said house, and to incurre the kinges further displeasure”.

Leper with bell in margins of C14 MS

Leper with bell in margins of C14 MS

Seal of the lazar-house, Mile End

Seal of the lazar-house, Mile End

Seal of the leper-women of Westminster

Seal of the leper-women of Westminster

There is  no record  of what became of him after he was expelled.  If he was fortunate, he may have found himself a place in one of the leper colonies or hospitals, or “Lazar(us) Houses”,  on the rural fringes of the City, in St Giles (in the Fields), Westminster and Knightsbridge to the west, Kingsland to the north, Mile End to the east, and Southwark to the south.  The “lazar houses” were invariably strategically sited at crossroads, where the  lepers could  beg for alms from  passing pedestrians.

St Giles in the Fields, originally founded as a leper colony or hospital in 1101

St Giles in the Fields, originally founded as a leper colony or hospital in 1101