Tag Archives: Mary

Lambeth

1 - Entrance to Lambeth Palace and Church of St Mary at Lambeth.JPG

Another in the occasional series on “Far-flung Lost London” …

Lambeth was first recorded as Lambehitha in 1062.  It takes its name  from the Old English for a place where lambs were either landed from or else boarded onto boats.

Lambeth Palace

2 - Entrance to Lambeth Palace.JPG

3 - View of Lambeth Palace - and Palace of Westminster - from tower of church.JPG

Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury,  was originally built here in the thirteenth century, and subsequently extended in the late fifteenth and sixteenth, under Henry VII and Mary respectively.  The surviving Chapel and Lollard’s Tower date to the late Medieval; the Gate-House, built by Cardinal John Morton, to the post-Medieval, to  1495.  The famous Garden was probably originally laid out in the late fifteenth or sixteenth century.

St Mary-at-Lambeth

4 - St Mary-at-Lambeth exterior.JPG

5 - St Mary-at-Lambeth interior.JPG

The church of St Mary-at-Lambeth was originally built in the  eleventh century, and subsequently rebuilt in the fourteenth and  eighteenth.  The tower of 1377 survives from the fourteenth-century rebuild.

6 - Tradescant tomb.JPG

Here are buried, among others,  John Tradescant Sr. (c. 1580-1638), the gardener to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury; and his son John Tradescant Jr. (1608-62), the gardener to Charles II.  As well as being gardeners, the  Tradescants were also  travellers, collectors of curiosities, and joint founders of the Musaeum Tradescantianum, in a building called “The Ark” in Vauxhall, which was England’s first museum open to the public (at a cost of 6d).  In time, their  collections were  acquired by Elias Ashmole, and in 1691 donated by him to Oxford University, to form the nucleus of the Ashmolean Museum.

Mary seizes the throne (Henry Machyn, 1553)

Queen Mary - quite scary

Henry Machyn wrote in his diary in 1553:

“The xix day of July was … Mare proclamyd qwene … , [as the] sister of the late kyng Edward the vi and daughter unto the nobull Henry  the viii … , and … ther was … song, and … belles ryngyng thrugh London, and bone-fyres, and tabuls in evere strett, and wyne and beer and alle, … and ther was money cast a-way”.

Meantime, Lady Jane Grey, who had acceded to the throne only nine days previously, was imprisoned in the Tower.  She was later tried and convicted on a charge of treason on November 13th, 1553, and eventually executed on February 12th, 1554.

 

 

Be of good comfort, brother

1 - Burning of Protestants at Stratford.jpg

On this day in 1556, during the Counter-Reformation, some 20000 people gathered in Stratford to witness the burning at the stake by the Catholic Queen Mary Tudor of thirteen Protestants (eleven men and two women) accused of  heresy.

2 - Memorial to the Protestant martyrs ar Stratford.JPG

There is a memorial to the martyrs outside the church of St John in Stratford.

3 - Burning of Protestants at Smithfield

A number of Protestant heretics were also burned at the stake by Mary  in West Smithfield, many of whom were later buried in the nearby church of St James  in Clerkenwell.

4 - Memorial to Protestant martyrs at West Smithfield

There is a memorial to three of them, namely, John Bradford, John Philpot and John Rogers,  in West Smithfield …

Martyrs - Copy

… and another in the church of St James in Clerkenwell.

John Foxe gives an account of the burning of Bradford in his “Book of Martyrs”, published in 1563, which reads as follows:

“ … When Bradford and Leaf came to the Stake … , they lay flat on their faces, praying to themselves the space of a minute of an hour.  Then one of the Sheriffs said … , Arise and make an end … .  At that word they both stood … and … Bradford took a Fagot in his hand, and kissed it, and so likewise the Stake.  … And so … Bradford went to the Stake: and holding up his hands, and casting his countenance to Heaven, he said thus, O England, England, repent thee of thy sins, repent thee of thy sins.  Beware of Idolatry, beware of false Antichrists, take heed they do not deceive you.  And … one of the Officers … made the fire … .  [And] Bradford … asked all the world forgiveness, and forgave all the world, and prayed the people to pray with him, and turned … unto the young man that suffered with him, and said, Be of good comfort Brother; for we shall have a merry Supper with the Lord this night: And so spake no more words that any man did hear … ”.

By way of balance, there are various memorials to Catholics executed by the Protestant Tudors in the Charterhouse and in the church of St Etheldreda in Holborn.  And there is another, near the site of the infamous “Tyburn Tree”, on Tyburn Convent.

 

Wyatt’s Rebellion (1554)

sir-thomas-wyatt-the-younger-by-hans-holbein

On this day in 1554, on Tower Hill, Sir Thomas Wyatt was beheaded and quartered for high treason for his part in “Wyatt’s rebellion”  against the Queen, Mary, and in particular her plan  to marry the Catholic King of Spain, Philip (*).

The aims of the rebellion were  to overthrow Mary; to put in her place her half-sister Elizabeth; and to have Elizabeth marry the Protestant Earl of Devon, Edward Courtenay.

These aims were to be achieved by force of arms, with each of the four main rebel leaders responsible for assembling  an army in his respective corner of the country before marching on London: Wyatt in Kent; Henry Grey (the father of Lady Jane Grey), the Duke of Suffolk, in Leicestershire; Sir James Croft in Herefordshire; and Sir Peter Carew in Devon.

In the event, only Wyatt succeeded in raising much of a rebel  army, which grew further on its march to London through desertions from forces sent to oppose it, and eventually became some four thousand strong.   The  army arrived in Southwark on February 3rd, to find its way into the City of London blocked at London Bridge by further forces, responding to Mary’s stirring rallying-call at the Guildhall two days earlier (the army  was also  threatened by cannon in the Tower of London, commanded by the Lieutenant of the Tower, John Bruges or Brydges, who intimated that he was prepared to put them to use).   It then  withdrew, wheeled west to Kingston to cross the river there, marched back east and  attempted to enter the City again at Ludgate on February 7th or 8th (sources differ), where it was again faced down, and where it broke up.

After the failure of his rebellion, Wyatt was tortured at the Tower before being tried, convicted and eventually executed.  His torturers had evidently hoped that he would somehow implicate Elizabeth, but he did not.  Elizabeth was herself temporarily imprisoned in the Tower while her supposed complicity was further investigated, but none was ever  proven.  She eventually became Queen after Mary’s death in 1558, and restored to the Wyatt family the titles and lands that Mary  had confiscated after the failed rebellion of four years before, including Allington Castle near Maidstone (substantially destroyed in a fire in the seventeenth century, and subsequently restored in the twentieth).

site-of-execution-of-sir-thomas-wyatt-the-younger-tower-hill1

(*) Note, incidentally, that Wyatt’s father, also Sir Thomas (1503-1542), was among other things a fine  poet, widely credited with introducing the sonnet into English literature.

 

The execution of Lady Jane Grey (1554)

A romanticised view of the execution of Lady Jane Grey, by Delaroche

On this day in 1554, Lady Jane Grey was executed on the orders of Queen Mary.  She  had previously been proclaimed Queen on July 10th, 1553, only to be usurped by Mary nine days later on July 19th, and   tried and convicted of high treason on November 13th.  This was despite the previous King, Edward VI, having in his will  nominated her  as his preferred successor to the throne (she being a fellow  Protestant; Mary,  a Catholic).

Lady Jane’s father, Henry Grey, was  executed a matter of a few days later, on February 23rd, for his role in “Wyatt’s Rebellion”.